Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē or Tsade or Ṣaddi or Ṣad or Tzadi or Sadhe or Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter in many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew Ṣadi צ and Arabic Ṣād ص. Its oldest sound value is probably /tsˤ/, although there is a variety of pronunciation in different modern Semitic languages and their dialects. It represents the coalescence of three Proto-Semitic "emphatic consonants" in Canaanite. Arabic, which kept the phonemes separate, introduced variants of ṣād and ṭāʼ to express the three (see ḍād, ẓāʼ). In Aramaic, these emphatic consonants coalesced instead with ʻayin and ṭēt, respectively, thus Hebrew ereẓ ארץ (earth) is arʻāʼ ארע in Aramaic.
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